Threat assessment china asian sports guangzhou
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There have also been reports of a large Chinese SOE in Ethiopia slicing projected profit margins to as low as three percent. Showing China's competitive edge over other foreign companies Chinese companies may occasionally undercut competitors by up to 50 percent on the price of the overall bid. However, such low prices are the exception rather than the rule. This was observed with the losing bid by a Chinese company based in Guinea for a road construction project in Sierra Leone that was twice as high as the winning bid from an Italian company. The list of 16 tenders submitted for the construction of a school in Zambia where eight Chinese companies were relatively evenly spread through the middle of the field is common, especially in markets where the Chinese presence is more mature.
Chinese companies are also quickly earning a reputation for good quality and timely work, rendering them popular in both the public and private sectors. Each of the countries examined had Chinese Trade Centres that provided information to both local and Chinese businesses wishing to enter the respective market either through trade or investment options. These Centres also provided limited logistical support assisting with the organization of accommodation, transportation and, in some instances, telecommunications. Such services are usually offered for a fee. The Economic and Commercial Counsels, which are attached to PRC Embassies but have a larger degree of autonomy than other desks, restrict their assistance to providing information.
None were able to provide solid information on trade or investment figures between China and the respective countries. They also authenticate and provide translations of official documents issued in China - such as company registrations and academic qualifications. The Chinese government is clearly very supportive of Chinese construction companies.
In practical terms the latter means assisting Chinese nationals with administrative problems that they may encounter with local authorities. Challenges in some African Countries Chinese construction companies experience many of the same challenges faced by their local and foreign competitors. The most widely cited challenge in Africa is the serious shortage of locally-sourced skilled workers and reliable labour. This problem is commonly offered as the rationale by most companies for their lack of local recruitment, particularly in Angola. Another serious challenge is the lack of infrastructure as a result of protracted civil wars.
One challenge unique to the Chinese was the issue of communication. In countries where they have been established for some time, the Chinese workers generally communicate in English or, at times, local languages. In Angola, communication continues to be a problem purely because English is not widely spoken, and it has only been two years since the Chinese construction companies entered the market in In Sierra Leone a number of government officials and subcontractors complained that the building plans used by the Chinese were written in Chinese script. These were incomprehensible to the local engineers and required the continued involvement of the Chinese in on-going maintenance.
It is anticipated that this problem will diminish over time. In Tanzania for example, Chinese companies regularly use building plans written in both Chinese and English to overcome this problem. Its capital is Accra and has a geographical area of aboutsq. This is about twice the size of the population in Guangzhou city, China. The official language is English with other local dialects spoken by the different ethnic groups. The oilfield which is reported to contain up to 3 billion barrels , m3 of light oil was discovered in Oil and Gas exploration is ongoing, and the amount of both oil and Threat assessment china asian sports guangzhou continues to increase Ghana is believed to have up to 5 billion barrels , m3 of oil in reserves, which is the 6th largest in Africa and the 25th largest proven reserves in the world.
The construction of the Bui Dam is one of the major projects of Chinese construction in Ghana after the construction of the Ghana National Theatre in Accra. It will also require the forcible resettlement of 1, people, and affect many more. Methodology The general research methodology for this project comprised basically of a survey questionnaire which was issued out to 8 interviewers at various locations and centers by postage and emails. They in turn went to the various construction firms in Ghana to conduct the study. It also consists of a statistical analysis of the Threat assessment china asian sports guangzhou obtained.
The firms interviewed involved both contractors and consultants engaged in various projects. Some of these companies interviewed had the following businesses: Transportation, Distribution, Haulage 3. The risk factors section and the personal details which sought for general personal data about the respondents. For the overall risk values obtained, the risk is given a rating ranging from 1 no severity and unlikely to happen to 25 just waiting to happen with disastrous and wide-spread results by the product of the scores for the severity and likelihood. Pilot Study These risks were mainly sourced from Ahmed et al. The research team conducted the survey from September to February Prior to disseminating the questionnaire, a pilot study was conducted with one academic and one project manager to test whether the questions are intelligible, easy to answer, unambiguous, etc.
Very useful and valuable feedbacks were obtained to ameliorate the quality of the questionnaire. After further refinement and corrections, the questionnaires were conducted to 15 construction firms in Ghana. Some respondents were contacted beforehand to make sure that they were familiar with construction projects and were willing to join this survey. Others were reluctant and did not want to give any information which they considered confidential and classified. Feedbacks were obtained after waiting for 12 weeks 15 feedbacks were received in which 3 feedbacks were identified as invalid due to incomplete or invariable answers. Assessment of Risk factors The risk assessment tool created from this work is intended to provide a quasi-quantitative guide to risk assessments based on the data obtained.
After the pilot study and studying the various situations at the construction sites some risk factors like legal, technical, financial and environmental risks were spotted as possible factors to help determine certain threats encountered by the Chinese firms. For a particular category of risk that was interviewed for example: The average of all those who answered "small" for a particular company were calculated to be "2". The worst Probability level of the risk occurrence is 5, and the worst Degree of impact or the level of loss if the risk occurs is also 5. The product of the probability level of risk and the degree of impact is used to obtain the expected risk value.
To assess the relative significance among risks, previous literatures study suggests establishing a risk significance index by calculating a significance score for each risk. The method for calculating the significance score is to multiply the probability of occurrence by the degree of impact. By averaging scores from all the responses, it is possible to get an average significance score for each risk, and this average score is called the Risk Index Score or Risk Significance as was previously defined. This is used to rank all categories of risks factors.
The model for the calculation of Risk Index Score can be written as Shen et al, Showing converted point scales Sample composition All the interviewed respondents were industry practitioners, including public and private developers, project managers, main contractors and subcontractors, senior consultants and engineers, and top management personnel. Obviously there were some difficulty in communication with some of the Chinese workers and officials due to language barrier. The questionnaire was translated into Chinese language simplified Chinese, Mandarin to cater for this difficulty in communication. Some of the respondents have received tertiary education whiles others are laborers who have not had any higher education.
It is clear that some of the top managers are well aware of the dangers and risks of construction at the site whiles the less educated and even some learned ones do not have adequate knowledge of construction projects and the associated risks. It should be noted that the sample size is relatively small in this survey. This may be due to two reasons. Firstly, the questionnaire aimed to explore 73 risk factors related to construction projects, which is time-consuming and may retard respondents from participation. Secondly, some of the questions administered were not answered as they were considered confidential questionnaire content is broad and may not be within the knowledge context of some industry practitioners.
The small sample may weaken the effectiveness of the questionnaire survey. However, the handpicked sample pool of industry practitioners and their profound knowledge and ample experience can compensate the aforementioned weakness. Results of Survey Analysis The questionnaire was given out to a total of 15 companies but effective reply was obtained from 12 companies. Within each company, 10 questionnaires were administered to uphold the consistency of the data. A total of questionnaires were issued out for the survey. Better responses came from these companies as they were promised that specific names will not be mentioned especially to the media.
Most of the questionnaire surveys were done from project manager of the project or project engineer at the site. Where the manager was not available, experienced workers helped to answer and complete the questionnaires. The Chinese version of the questionnaire was given to the Chinese professionals to evaluate and answer questions from the questionnaire. This table shows the experience in construction of respondents Figure 5. Sample composition of Survey For some of the construction firms the consultant gave the answers on behalf of their clients, both from the owner and the contractor side.
Email and Skype responses were accepted since it was sometimes difficult to get the direct one to one meeting with the Project managers. Policy and political related issues, Sub-contractor related problems, power supply and fuel issues, and increase in inflation were the major problems concerned with both the contractor and owner. The eggs of the worms can cause stomach illnesses like diarrhea and cramps or urinary problems. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Avoid swimming in freshwater sources lakes, rivers, ponds. There is no vaccine available for schistosomiasis.
Travellers' diarrhea Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travellers. It is spread from eating or drinking contaminated food or water. Risk of developing travellers' diarrhea increases when travelling in regions with poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Practise safe food and water precautions. The most important treatment for travellers' diarrhea is rehydration drinking lots of fluids. Carry oral rehydration salts when travelling. Typhoid Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Travellers visiting regions with a risk typhoid, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation should speak to a health care professional about vaccination.
Insects Insects and Illness Travellers are advised to take precautions against bites. Chikungunya There is currently a risk of chikungunya in this country. Chikungunya can cause a viral disease that typically causes fever and pain in the joints. In some cases, the joint pain can be severe and last for months or years.
Assessment asian Threat guangzhou china sports
sporrs Protect yourself from mosquito bites at all assessmeht. There is no vaccine available for Threah. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever assessmennt a viral disease that typically causes fever, yuangzhou under the skin, and pain. It is spread to humans though contact with infected animal blood or bodily fluids, or Threah a tick bite. Protect yourself from tick bites and avoid animals. There is no vaccine available for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. Dengue Dengue fever occurs in this country. Dengue fever is a viral disease that can cause severe flu-like symptoms. Mosquitoes carrying dengue typically bite during the daytime, particularly around sunrise and sunset.
Protect yourself from mosquito bites. There is no vaccine or medication that protects against dengue fever. Zika virus infection Zika virus infection is a risk in this country. The mosquito that spreads the virus is found here. All travellers should protect themselves from mosquito bites and other diseases spread by insects. Malaria is a serious and occasionally fatal disease that is spread by mosquitoes. There is no vaccine against malaria. This includes covering up, using insect repellent and staying in well-screened, air-conditioned accommodations. You may also consider sleeping under an insecticide-treated bed net or pre-treating travel gear with insecticides.
Antimalarial medication may be recommended depending on your itinerary and the time of year you are travelling. See a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic, preferably six weeks before you travel to discuss your options. Animals Animals and Illness Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, monkeys, snakes, rodents, birds, and bats. Some infections found in some areas in Eastern Asia, like avian influenza and rabiescan be shared between humans and animals.
In physically cases, it can benefit people. In trimmings where they have been eroded for some serious, the Philippines workers generally better in Chicago or, at times, local languages.
Avian Influenza There have been human cases of avian influenza in this country. Avian influenza is a viral infection that can spread quickly and easily among birds. Chuna rare cases, it can infect people. Remember to wash your hands often and practice proper cough and sneeze etiquette to avoid colds, the flu and other illnesses. Hand, foot and mouth disease Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a common viral illness that mainly affects infants and children. Travellers are at increased risk if visiting or living in overcrowded conditions. There is no vaccine or medication that protects against this disease. Tuberculosis Tuberculosis is an infection caused by bacteria and usually affects the lungs.
For most travellers the risk of tuberculosis is low. Travellers who may be at high risk while travelling in regions with risk of tuberculosis should discuss pre- and post-travel assezsment with a health care professional. High-risk travellers include those visiting or working in prisons, refugee camps, homeless shelters, or hospitals, or travellers visiting friends and relatives. Medical services and facilities Threat assessment china asian sports guangzhou care is widely huangzhou in urban areas, but not in remote areas. Ask doctors and dentists to use sterilized equipment. Medical care in clinics offering international standard services to foreigners is much more expensive.
Payment is expected at time of service. Medical evacuation can sporst very expensive and you may need it in case of serious illness or assessmen. Make sure you get travel insurance that includes coverage for medical evacuation and hospital stays. Travel health and safety Altitude sickness Tibet, Qinghai, western Sichuan and parts of Xinjiang are situated at altitudes exceeding 3, meters. Acute mountain sickness may occur at high altitudes. Be well informed about the potential health hazards at high altitudes. The decision to travel guangzou the sole responsibility of the traveller.
The traveller is also responsible for his or guangzhoh own personal safety. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a travel health kitespecially asseasment you will be travelling away from major city centres. You are subject to local laws. Learn about what you should do and how we can help if you are arrested or detained abroad. Laws Detention during the investigative period before charges are laid is common and can be lengthy. Some defence lawyers may be reluctant to accept cases involving foreigners. Consult a Canadian government office in China if you experience such difficulty.
Identification Carry adequate identification, such as a passport and valid visa or residence permit, at all times. Police carry out random checks and failure to produce proper identification could potentially lead to fines or detention. Keep a photocopy of your passport in case of its loss or seizure. If you are suspected of endangering national security, you will be subject to questioning. Chinese authorities may detain you for up to 6 months before you are formally arrested. Note that access to legal representation is frequently denied in the initial stages of a national security case, and trials often take place in closed court.
If you are detained, you should immediately request access to a lawyer and request notification of the nearest Canadian diplomatic mission. Canadian diplomatic missions can provide you or your family with a list of lawyers. If you previously occupied a position that was in any way affiliated with the government of China, and left your position without receiving authorization or without following formal procedures, you may be considered a defector by Chinese authorities. This can be the case regardless of the seniority of the position you occupied, even if you left this position a long time ago and you did not handle sensitive or classified materials.
Authorities may detain you even if you have previously travelled to or resided in China without issue. Consult a Chinese criminal lawyer to understand how this may apply to you. Drugs Penalties for possession, use, production or trafficking of illegal drugs are strict and include the death penalty. These laws are strictly enforced and apply to persons 14 years and older. Prohibited items There are absolute prohibitions against arms, drugs and plant or animal products considered infested with disease or pests.
There are also restrictions on the entry of printed matter, film, photos, videotapes and CDs considered detrimental to the interests of China. Importing pets If you intend to reside in China, be advised that only one pet dog or cat per person can be imported. Animals without the proper documentation will be held in quarantine at the port of arrival and could be destroyed if the proper documentation is not provided. Find the Animal Health Office nearest you - Canadian Food Inspection Agency Religious activities There are restrictions on certain religious activities, such as preaching, distributing literature and associating with unapproved religious groups, including some Christian, Buddhist and Muslim organizations.
Chinese law also prohibits overseas nongovernmental organizations from engaging in or sponsoring religious activities. The Falun Gong movement is banned in China.